Changes in foreign currency exchange rates could impact amounts you receive as a result of any dividend or distribution we declare on our ordinary shares.
Any significant change in the value of the Australian dollar may impact amounts you receive in U.S. dollars as a result of any dividend or distribution we declare on our ordinary shares as a holder of our ADSs. More specifically, any dividends that we pay on our ordinary shares will be in Australian dollars. The depositary for the ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our ordinary shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses, including any such fees or expenses incurred to convert any such Australian dollars into U.S. dollars. You will receive these distributions in U.S. dollars in proportion to the number of our ordinary shares your ADSs represent. Depreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Australian dollar would have a negative effect on any such distribution payable to you.
You may not receive distributions on our ordinary shares represented by the ADSs or any value for such distribution if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to holders of ADSs.
While we do not anticipate paying any dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future, if such a dividend is declared, the depositary for the ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on our ordinary shares or other deposited securities after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of our ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, in accordance with the limitations set forth in the deposit agreement, it may be unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to holders of ADSs. We have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of the ADSs, ordinary shares, rights or anything else to holders of the ADSs. This means that you may not receive the distributions we make on our ordinary shares or any value from them if it is unlawful or impractical to make them available to you. These restrictions may have a material adverse effect on the value of your ADSs.
You may be subject to limitations on transfers of your ADSs.
ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.
U.S. investors may have difficulty enforcing civil liabilities against our company, our directors or members of our senior management.
Several of our officers and directors are non-residents of the United States, and a substantial portion of the assets of such persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be impossible to serve process on such persons in the United States or to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts against them based on civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States. Even if you are successful in bringing such an action, there is doubt as to whether Australian courts would enforce certain civil liabilities under U.S. securities laws in original actions or judgments of U.S. courts based upon these civil liability provisions. In addition, awards of punitive damages in actions brought in the United States or elsewhere may be unenforceable in Australia or elsewhere outside the U.S. An award for monetary damages under the U.S. securities laws would be considered punitive if it does not seek to compensate the claimant for loss or damage suffered and is intended to punish the defendant. The enforceability of any judgment in Australia will depend on the particular facts of the case as well as the laws and treaties in effect at the time. The United States and Australia do not currently have a treaty or statute providing for recognition and enforcement of the judgments of the other country (other than arbitration awards) in civil and commercial matters.
As a result, our public shareholders and holders of the ADSs may have more difficulty in protecting their interests through actions against us, our management, our directors than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction in the United States.
Our Constitution and Australian laws and regulations applicable to us may adversely affect our ability to take actions that could be beneficial to our shareholders.
As an Australian company we are subject to different corporate requirements than a corporation organized under the laws of the United States. Our Constitution, as well as the Corporations Act, sets forth various rights and obligations that apply to us as an Australian company and which may not apply to a U.S. corporation. These requirements may operate differently than those of many U.S. companies.